China USA Human Rights

China, USA and Human Rights

human rightsUN Universal Declaration of Human Rights 

The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights was voted into existence on December 10, 1948 so that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

We must judge a country’s human rights record by what it does and not what it aspires to do or says it’s doing because fictitious and distorted ‘human rights’ stories abound. In the list of Articles below I assign one point to the country with the better performance in that category and I have taken pains to be unfair. I judge the USA harshly because it convened the United Nations, wrote its human rights charter, signed it, became fabulously rich and powerful and has been lecturing the world on human rights for 70 years. China, on the other hand, comes from a different ethical tradition (collective punishment was vital) and is vast, diverse, poor and under constant threat and attack by wealthy, powerful countries.

Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. [Blacks. Indians.]. CHINA +1 

Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. [Muslims in USA]. CHINA +1

Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. [Invasions are US state policy]. CHINA +1

Purportedly to compel Saddam Hussein’s government to give up its weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the UN imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, which lasted until the 2003 invasion. The sanctions regime was enforced by the US and Britain which took the toughest line on compliance. “No country had ever been subjected to more comprehensive economic sanctions by the United Nations than Iraq,” notes Hans Von Sponeck, the former UN Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq, in his 2006 book A Different Kind of War. Communicable diseases in the 1980s not considered public health hazards, such as measles, polio, cholera, typhoid, marasmus and kwashiorkor, reappeared on epidemic scales.” In 1999 the United Nations Children’s Fund (Unicef) estimated that over 500,000 Iraqi children under the age of five had died because of a lack of medication, food or safe water supplies. More..

Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. [Florida fruit pickers. Louisiana prison workers]. CHINA +1

Some of America’s most vulnerable workers are victims of modern-day slavery, and the government knows it. What’s worse: These workers are protecting U.S. military and economic interests – but the U.S. isn’t protecting them. In its annual Trafficking in Persons Report, released Friday, the State Department acknowledged that trafficking and forced labor still exist in America. The report includes several examples: abuse of third-country nationals trafficked to work on military bases, migrant domestic workers subjected to forced labor by diplomats and international organization personnel, and temporary guest workers in a variety of industries forced to work under horrifying conditions with nowhere to turn. More..

Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. [Torture is US state policy] CHINA +1

Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. [Guantanamo] CHINA +1

Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. [Bank CEOs. Blacks.] CHINA +1

Article 8. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. [Mortgage foreclosures; poor, incarcerated & massacred Blacks] CHINA +1

Article 9. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. [US authorities regularly practice all three].CHINA +1

Article 10. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. [Bradley Manning] CHINA +1

Article 11. (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense. [Unless he’s Black or we want to assassinate him by drone]. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article 12. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. [US has 24×7 surveillance of all citizens] CHINA +1

Article 13. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. [Secret, no-fly list]. (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. [Edward Snowdon]. CHINA +1

Article 14. (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. [except Edward Snowdon]. (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. [Julian Assange]. CHINA +1

Article 15. (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.Article 16. (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 17. (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property [illegal foreclosures]. CHINA +1

Article 18. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. [Unless you’re Muslim]. CHINA +1

Article 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. [Unless you’re a whistle-blower].

Article 20. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. [Hahahaha]. (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 21. (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. [If you have $800 million]. (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. [Only people funded by oligarchs may enter our elections]. CHINA +1

Article 22. Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. [US cops shoot 1,000 unarmed people each year]. CHINA +1

Article 23. (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. [Unless you’re poor or black]. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. [If you can live with dignity on $7.25/hour]. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. [Our trade unions have been deliberately destroyed]. CHINA +1

Article 24. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. [Chinese get 3 weeks paid, mandatory vacation. We get none]. CHINA +1

Article 25. (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. [Just kidding]. (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. [Ask poor, working mothers about this]. CHINA +1

Article 26. (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.[Chinese kids better educated than ours]. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. CHINA +1

Article 27. (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. [Patents] CHINA +1

Article 28. Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. [Unless we want to bomb, invade or assassinate you]. CHINA +1

Article 29. (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.  (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 30. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein. [Except the USA invading other countries and destroying them]. CHINA +1

What do YOU think?

Posted in China, China Governance, China Human Rights, tibet china, Uncategorized, USA vs China | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

European Human Rights & China

Von Rompuy Human Rights Inspector in China

Von Rompuy Human Rights Inspector in China

Strangely, this post is mostly about European Human Rights & China. China’s human rights record is slightly better than the USA’s – though neither is a paragon of virtue– and that China has drawn ahead of the US since the death of Mao. Most of the accusations against China are either total fabrications like the so-called Tiananmen “massacre” or gross distortions. Dr. Paul Craig Roberts was Reagan’s Assistant Secretary of the Treasury and a committed, right wing Capitalist. Here’s his take on this week’s “Human Rights Reports” from the US Government (Here’s China’s):

The US government is the second worst human rights abuser on the planet and the sole enabler of the worst–Israel. But this doesn’t hamper Washington from pointing the finger elsewhere.

The US State Department’s “human rights report” focuses its ire on Iran and Syria, two countries whose real sin is their independence from Washington, and on the bogyman- in-the-making–China, the country selected for the role of Washington’s new Cold War enemy.

Hillary Clinton, another in a long line of unqualified Secretaries of State, informed “governments around the world: we are watching, and we are holding you accountable,” only we are not holding ourselves accountable or Washington’s allies like Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and the NATO puppets.

Hillary also made it “clear to citizens and activists everywhere: You are not alone. We are standing with you,” only not with protesters at the Chicago NATO summit or with the Occupy Wall Street protesters, or anywhere else in the US where there are protests. (ref)

The State Department stands with the protesters funded by the US in the countries whose governments the US wishes to overthrow. Protesters in the US stand alone as do the occupied Palestinians who apparently have no human rights to their homes, lands, olive groves, or lives. Read more…

 

Glenn Greenwald writes: Drone filmmaker denied visa. Muhammad Danish Qasim is a Pakistani student at Iqra University’s Media Science and is also a filmmaker. This year, Qasim released a short film entitled The Other Side, a 20-minute narrative that “revolves around the idea of assessing social, psychological and economical effects of drones on the people in tribal areas of Pakistan.” A two-minute video trailer of the film is embedded below. The Express Tribune provided this summary of the film, including an interview with Qasim:

The Other Side revolves around a school-going child in Miranshah, the capital of North Waziristan. The child’s neighborhood gets bombed after the people of the region are suspected for some notorious activities. He ends up losing all of his loved ones during the bombing and later becomes part of an established terrorists group who exploit his loss and innocence for their own interests.
On the reasons for picking such a sensitive topic, the film-maker said, “Most of the films being made right now are based on social issues, so we picked up an issue of international importance which is the abrogation of our national space by foreign countries.”
When asked how this film on terrorism will be different from all the others that have been released since 9/11, he said, “The film takes the audience very close to the damage caused by drone attacks. I have tried my best to connect all the dots that lead to a drone attack and have shot the prevailing aftermath of such attacks in a very realistic and raw manner.”

In particular, “the film identifies the problems faced by families who have become victims of drone missiles, and it unearths the line of action which terrorist groups adopt to use victimised families for their vested interests.” In other words, it depicts the tragedy of civilian deaths, and documents how those deaths are then successfully exploited by actual Terrorists for recruitment purposes. [Continue reading…]

The next time you see or hear an accusation about “human rights” in China, ask yourself this:  In China’s 3,000 year history, when has its people’s human rights been better?

You’ve probably guessed the answer: never.  China’s human rights have reached their highest level in 3,000 years and are steadily improving.  New laws are being debated and passed.  Police are being trained, judges schooled, prosecutors curbed, officials warned and jailed.

Specifically, China’s minorities (usually the worst-treated group in any country) are enjoying unprecedented freedom, prosperity, and privileges that Han Chinese can only dream about, like unlimited family size and access to higher education.  Unlike Australia’s Aborigines, America’s Native Americans, Europe’s Romany, Japan’s Ainu, India’s Naxalites…the list goes on.  Meanwhile, Americans’ human rights have been heading in the opposite direction.  In the past ten years the United States has made it “legal” for its government to

  1. Spy on its own people secretly.
  2. If you see the government spying you may not warn the subject.
  3. Arrest its own people secretly.  If you see the arrest you may not tell anyone.
  4. Imprison its own people indefinitely, without trial (Bradley Manning)
  5. Torture its own people (and anyyone else) secretly
  6. Kill its own people secretly, without trial (Anwar al-Awlaki)
  7. Attack any country, regardless of threat, and kill uncounted civilians. Iraq, Pakistan.)

In contrast, here’s a report on China’s human rights you may have missed, from the EU Observer:

EU officials more Nuanced on Human Rights After Trips to China. ANDREW RETTMAN

BRUSSELS – Recent trips to China by Catherine Ashton and Herman Van Rompuy have helped them to see human rights from a Chinese point of view, China’s EU ambassador has said.  The ambassador, Song Zhe, told journalists in Brussels on Friday (8 July) that some EU diplomats tend to “lecture” China on values.

“It has been 400 years since world power shifted from east to west and during this time people in Europe have developed a habit of viewing things from above and lecturing others,” he said.  He blamed the problem on lack of knowledge, saying Chinese society has come along in leaps and bounds in terms of people’s rights to economic development and rights to education even if it falls short in other areas.

Asked if EU foreign relations chief Ashton and EU Council President Van Rompuy take a hard line on values, Song answered that extensive visits by the top officials, in 2010 and in May this year, have seen them take a more nuanced approach.  “Ashton and other political figures from the EU, even ordinary people who have been to China and have seen the situation on the ground, the progress we’ve made, hold a more positive view of what China has achieved,” he said.  The ambassador zoomed in on two anecdotes.

“Ashton visited a small village, a very normal elementary school. Despite poverty in the region, the school was well equipped – this illustrates that despite economic difficulties the local authorities attach great importance to education, that the Chinese government is working to ensure that everybody gains access to education.”

When Van Rompuy visited a former disaster zone in the Sichuan province “what surprised him was the nice line-up of buildings in the area, with no sign of the [2008] earthquake.”
For its part, Human Rights Watch reports that China is currently undergoing the worst wave of repression in its modern history, with systematic censorship of free media, brutal crackdowns on ethnic minorities and hundreds of dissidents disappearing into so-called “black jails.” [Human Rights Watch ignores the USA’s much more serious offences.–Ed.]

Song noted that China is “far from perfect. There is huge room for improvement and a long way to go.” He repeated the often-heard line that his country should not be measured by Western standards because it is going through unique economic and social changes which are “unprecedented in world history” in terms of their speed. “We don’t speak of a Chinese model because we are still in an experimental phase. We’re still learning. Our model is constantly taking in new ingredients from the EU and US models.”

In an insight into how Beijing sees international relations, Song defended China’s opposition to an EU-sponsored draft UN Security Council resolution condemning mass killings in Syria. “The principle we uphold is to respect the will of the country to choose its own path of development,” he said.

CIA medical staff gave specifications on how to torture post-9/11 detainees

CIA medical personnel acknowledged that placing detainees in small boxes barely large enough to fit their bodies inside was not “particularly effective”, but they still provided guidance permitting interrogators to continue using the so-called “confinement boxes” for hours on end. Sensitive agency documents, declassified on Tuesday, provide a new level of detail on the intimate involvement of its medical staff during its post-9/11 torture program. Officials assigned to the Office of Medical Staff (OMS) provided precise specifications for enforcing sleep deprivation, limiting the caloric intake of detainees’ food, and the proper positions for waterboarding, as outlined in a 2004 document providing “guidelines on medical and psychological support” for torture. More…

China’s Human Rights? Who can judge?

Posted in China, China Human Rights, corruption china, Hong Kong, tibet china, Uncategorized, USA vs China | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

China’s Progress 2015

What Was China’s Progress in 2015? Here’s the story from the horse’s mouth: the National Bureau of Statistics of China, originally published on 19 January, 2016:

In 2015, faced with complicated international environment and increasing downward pressure on the economy, the Central Party Committee and the State Council have maintained the strategic focus, comprehensively arranged both domestic and international tasks, adhered to the general work guideline of making progress while maintaining stability, actively adapted to and led the new normal, guided new practices with new theories, strived for new development with new strategies, innovated macro-regulation, deepened the structural reform and pushed forward “mass entrepreneurship and innovation”. As a result, the economy has achieved moderate but stable and sound development.   

China GDP per capita

China GDP per capita 

According to the preliminary estimation, the gross domestic product (GDP) of China was 67,670.8 billion yuan in 2015, an increase of 6.9 percent at comparable prices. Specifically, the year-on-year growth of the first quarter was 7.0 percent, the second quarter 7.0 percent, the third quarter 6.9 percent, and the fourth quarter 6.8 percent. The value added of the primary industry was 6,086.3 billion yuan, up by 3.9 percent; the secondary industry 27,427.8 billion yuan, up by 6.0 percent; and the tertiary industry 34,156.7 billion yuan, up by 8.3 percent. The gross domestic product of the fourth quarter of 2015 went up by 1.6 percent on a quarter-on-quarter base.  

1. Agricultural Production Enjoyed Another Harvest. 

The total grain output in 2015 was 621.43 million tons, an increase of 14.41 million tons, up by 2.4 percent. The total output of summer grain was 141.12 million tons, an increase of 3.3 percent; the total output of early rice was 33.69 million tons, a decrease of 0.9 percent; the total output of autumn grain was 446.62 million tons, an increase of 2.3 percent. The total output of cereals was 572.25 million tons, an increase of 2.7 percent. The total output of cotton in 2015 was 5.61 million tons, a decrease of 9.3 percent. The total output of pork, beef, mutton and poultry was 84.54 million tons, a decrease of 1.0 percent, among which the total output of pork was 54.87 million tons, a decrease of 3.3 percent. The total output of poultry eggs in 2015 was 29.99 million tons, an increase of 3.6 percent; the total output of milk was 37.55 million tons, an increase of 0.8 percent.  

2. The Upgrading of the Industry was Notable. 

The total value added of the industrial enterprises above the designated size in 2015 was up by 6.1 percent at comparable prices. An analysis by types of ownership showed that the value added growth of the state holding enterprises was 1.4 percent; that of the collective enterprises, 1.2 percent; share-holding enterprises, 7.3 percent; and enterprises funded by foreign investors or investors from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, 3.7 percent. In terms of sectors, the value added of the mining grew by 2.7 percent compared with last year, the manufacturing by 7.0 percent and the electricity, thermal power, gas and the production and supply of water by 1.4 percent. New industries were growing rapidly. In 2015, the value added of the new technology industry grew by 10.2 percent, 4.1 percentage points faster than industrial enterprises above the designated size, accounting for 11.8 percent of industrial enterprises above the designated size, 1.2 percentage points more than last year. Among the new technology industry, the manufacture of aerospace vehicles and equipment grew by 26.2 percent, manufacture of electronic and communication equipment by 12.7 percent, the manufacture of optical and photographic equipment by 10.6 percent and the manufacture of medicines by 9.9 percent. In 2015, the sales-output ratio of industrial enterprises above the designated size reached 97.6 percent. The export delivery value of these enterprises reached 11,858.2 billion yuan, down by 1.8 percent. In December, the total value added of the industrial enterprises above the designated size was up by 5.9 percent year-on-year or up by 0.41 percent month-on-month.

From January to November, the profits made by industrial enterprises above the designated size stood at 5,538.7 billion yuan, down by 1.9 percent year-on-year. The costs for per-hundred-yuan turnover of principal activities of the industrial enterprises above the designated size reached 85.97 yuan and the profit rate of the principal activities was 5.57 percent. 

3. The Growth of Investment in Fixed Assets Slowed Down.  

In 2015, the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households) was 55,159.0 billion yuan, a nominal year-on-year growth of 10.0 percent over last year or a real growth of 12.0 percent after deducting price factors, 2.9 percentage points slower than last year in real term. Specifically, the investment by the state holding enterprises reached 17,893.3 billion yuan, a rise of 10.9 percent; private investment reached 35,400.7 billion yuan, up by 10.1 percent, accounting for 64.2 percent of the total investment. The investment in the primary industry was 1,556.1 billion yuan, up by 31.8 percent; the secondary industry 22,409.0 billion yuan, up by 8.0 percent; and the tertiary industry 31,193.9 billion yuan, an increase of 10.6 percent. The funds in place for investment in 2015 were 57,378.9 billion yuan, up by 7.7 percent. Specifically, the state budget went up by 15.6 percent, domestic loans down by 5.8 percent, self-raising funds up by 9.5 percent and utilization of foreign investment down by 29.6 percent. The total investment in newly-started projects in 2015 was 40,808.4 billion yuan, an increase of 5.5 percent. In December, investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households) grew by 0.68 percent month-on-month. 

The total investment in real estate development in 2015 was 9,597.9 billion yuan, a nominal growth of 1.0 percent (a real growth of 2.8 percent after deducting price factors). In particular, the investment in residential buildings went up by 0.4 percent. The floor space newly started was 1,544.54 million square meters, down by 14.0 percent. Specifically, the floor space of residential buildings went down by 14.6 percent. The floor space of commercial buildings sold was 1,284.95 million square meters, up by 6.5 percent. Specifically, the floor space of residential buildings sold was up by 6.9 percent. The total sales of commercial buildings were 8,728.1 billion yuan, up by 14.4 percent. Specifically, the sales of residential buildings were up by 16.6 percent. The land space purchased for real estate development was 228.11 million square meters, down by 31.7 percent. By the end of December, the floor space of commercial buildings for sale was 718.53 million square meters, up by 15.6 percent compared with that at the end of last year. The funds in place for real estate development enterprises reached 12,520.3 billion yuan, up by 2.6 percent over last year. 

4. Market Sales Grew Rapidly. 

In 2015, the total retail sales of consumer goods reached 30,093.1 billion yuan, a nominal annual rise of 10.7 percent (a real growth of 10.6 percent after deducting price factors). Specifically, the retail sales of consumer goods by enterprises above the designated size stood at 14,255.8 billion yuan, up by 7.8 percent over the last year. Analyzed by different areas, the retail sales in urban areas reached 25,899.9 billion yuan, up by 10.5 percent, and the retail sales in rural areas stood at 4,193.2 billion yuan, up by 11.8 percent. Grouped by consumption patterns, the income of catering industry was 3,231.0 billion yuan, up by 11.7 percent; and the retail sales of goods were 26,862.1 billion yuan, up by 10.6 percent. In particular, the retail sales of the enterprises above the designated size reached 13,389.1 billion yuan, an increase of 7.9 percent. In December, the nominal growth of total retail sales of consumer goods was 11.1 percent over last year (a real growth of 10.7 percent after deducting price factors), or 0.82 percent month-on-month.

In 2015, the online retail sales reached 3,877.3 billion yuan, an increase of 33.3 percent compared with last year, among which the retail sales of physical goods was 3,242.4 billion yuan, an increase of 31.6 percent, accounting for 10.8 percent of the total retail sales of consumer goods; the retail sales of non-physical goods was 634.9 billion yuan, an increase of 42.4 percent.

5. The Imports and Exports Decreased on a Year-on-Year Base.

The total value of imports and exports in 2015 was 24,584.9 billion yuan, a decrease of 7.0 percent. The total value of exports was 14,135.7 billion yuan, down by 1.8 percent; the total value of imports was 10,449.2 billion yuan, a decrease of 13.2 percent. The trade balance was 3,686.5 billion yuan in surplus. In December, the total value of imports and exports was 2,475.7 billion yuan, down by 0.5 percent year-on-year. Of this total, the value of exports was 1,428.9 billion yuan, up by 2.3 percent; and that of imports was 1,046.8 billion yuan, down by 4.0 percent. 

6. The Consumer Price Increased Moderately.

In 2015, the consumer price went up by 1.4 percent over last year. Specifically, the price went up by 1.5 percent in urban areas and 1.3 percent in rural areas. Grouped by commodity categories, prices for food rose by 2.3 percent; tobacco, liquor and related articles up by 2.1 percent; clothing up by 2.7 percent; household facilities, articles and maintenance services up by 1.0 percent; health care and personal articles up by 2.0 percent; transportation and communication down by 1.7 percent; recreation, education, culture articles and services up by 1.4 percent and housing up by 0.7 percent. In terms of food prices, grain went up by 2.0 percent, oil or fat down by 3.2 percent, pork up by 9.5 percent and fresh vegetables up by 7.4 percent. In December, the consumer prices went up by 1.6 percent year-on-year, or 0.5 percent up month-on-month. In 2015, the producer prices for industrial products went down by 5.2 percent compared with last year, while the price in December dropped by 5.9 percent year-on-year and 0.6 percent month-on-month. The purchasing price for industrial producers was down by 6.1 percent compared with last year and in December, the price was down by 6.8 percent year-on-year and 0.7 percent month-on-month. 

7. Residents’ Income Increased Steadily. 

In 2015, the national per capita disposable income of residents was 21,966 yuan, a nominal growth of 8.9 percent over last year, or a real increase of 7.4 percent after deducting price factors. In terms of permanent residence, the per capita disposable income of urban households was 31,195 yuan, a nominal growth of 8.2 percent, or a real growth of 6.6 percent after deducting price factors. The per capita disposable income of rural residents was 11,422 yuan, up by 8.9 percent, or 7.5 percent in real terms. The per capita income of urban households was 2.73 times of the rural households, 0.02 less than last year. The median of the national disposal income was 19,281 yuan, a nominal increase of 9.7 percent. Taking the per capita disposable income of nationwide households by income quintiles, that of the low-income group reached 5,221 yuan, the lower-middle-income group 11894 yuan, the middle-income group 19320 yuan, the upper-middle-income group 29,438 yuan, and the high-income group 54,544 yuan. The Gini Coefficient for national income in 2015 was 0.462. The number of rural migrant workers in 2015 totaled 277.47 million, which was 3.52 million more than that in last year, or up by 1.3 percent. Specifically, the numbers of local and outside migrant workers were 108.63 million and 168.84 million respectively, up by 2.7 and 0.4 percent. The average monthly income of migrant workers was 3,072 yuan, up by 7.2 percent.

8. Economic Structure was Optimized and Upgraded.

The industrial structure was further optimized. In 2015, the value added of the tertiary industry accounted for 50.5 percent of GDP, 2.4 percentage points higher than last year, 10.0 percentage points higher than that of the secondary industry. The structure of domestic demand was further improved. In 2015, the final consumption expenditure accounted for 66.4 percent of GDP, 15.4 percentage points higher than last year. The balance of regional structure was strengthened. The value added of industries above the designated size in the central and western regions increased by 7.6 percent and 7.8 percent compared with last year, 0.9 percentage point and 1.1 percentage points faster than the eastern region respectively. Investment in fixed assets in the central region (excluding rural households) increased by 15.7 percent, 3.0 percentage points faster than the eastern region. Energy conservation and consumption reduction continued to make new achievements. In 2015, the energy consumption per unit of GDP decreased by 5.6 percent compared with last year. 

9. Money Supply Maintained a Steady Growth. 

By the end of December, the balance of broad money (M2) was 139.23 trillion yuan, an increase of 13.3 percent compared with that at the end of last year; the balance of narrow money (M1) was 40.10 trillion yuan, a rise of 15.2 percent; and the balance of cash in circulation (M0) was 6.32 trillion yuan, a rise of 4.9 percent. At the end of December, the amount of outstanding loans was 93.95 trillion yuan, while the amount of outstanding deposits was 135.70 trillion yuan. In 2015, the newly increased loans reached 11.72 trillion yuan, an increase of 1.81 trillion yuan; the newly increased deposits were 14.97 trillion yuan, or 1.94 trillion yuan more than last year. The social financing reached 15.41 trillion yuan. 

10. Population and Employment Situation were Generally Stable. 

By the end of 2015, the total population of mainland China was 1,374.62 million (including population of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, and servicemen in CPLA; but not including residents in Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR, Taiwan Province and overseas Chinese), an increase of 6.80 million over that at the end of 2014. In 2015, the number of births was 16.55 million and the birth rate was 12.07 in a thousand; the number of deaths was 9.75 million with a death rate of 7.11 in a thousand; the natural growth rate was 4.96 in a thousand, a decrease of 0.25 in a thousand. In terms of gender, the male population was 704.14 million, and female population was 670.48 million; the sex ratio of the total population was 105.02 (the female is 100); the sex ratio at birth was 113.51. Population at the working age of 16-59 was 910.96 million, a decrease of 4.87 million as compared with that at the end of 2014, and it accounted for 66.3 percent of the total population; population aged 60 and over was 222.00 million, which was 16.1 percent of the total population; population aged 65 and over was 143.86 million, accounting for 10.5 percent of the total population. In terms of urban-rural structure, the urban population was 771.16 million, an increase of 22.00 million over the last year; and the rural population was 603.46 million, a decrease of 15.20 million. The proportion of the urban population to the total population was 56.1 percent. The population who reside in areas other than their household registration and have been away from there for over 6 months reached 294 million, which was 3.77 million less than that in the last year. Specifically, the migrant population was 247 million, or 5.68 million less. At the end of 2015, the total number of employed persons was 774.51 million and the number of urban employed persons was 404.10 million.

Generally speaking, China’s economy has maintained within a proper range. The economic structure has been further optimized, the transformation and upgrading fastened, the new impetus accumulated and the people’s life improved. However, at the same time, we must be aware that the international environment is still complicated, the domestic structural transformation and upgrading are in a crucial period during which challenges need to be overcome and problems need to be resolved and the task of comprehensively deepening the reform is still heavy. For the next step, we must carefully study and implement the spirits of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the 3rd, 4th and 5th Plenary Sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee and the Central Economic Work Conference as well as the decisions and arrangements of the Central Party Committee and the State Council. We must adhere to the guideline of stable macro-policy, precise industrial policy, flexible micro-policy, practical reform policy and solid social policy, and focus on the supply-side structural reform so as to promote the national economy to maintain medium-to-high speed and move to medium-to-high end with medium-to-high income.

Notes: 

1. To further promote the integration of China’s quarterly GDP accounting with international practices, the National Bureau of Statistics of China has implemented the reform on quarterly GDP accounting since the third quarter of 2015 by adopting quarterly accounting and publishing the related results. 

2. The growth rate of gross domestic product, value added of industrial enterprises above designated size and its sub-items are real growth by using comparable prices. The growth rates of other indicators are nominal growth by using current prices unless otherwise specified.

 3. According to the auto-revision function of the seasonal adjustment model, GDP in each quarter and the month-on-month changes of the value added of industrial enterprises above designated size, investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households), and total retail sales of consumer goods have been revised. The revised figures and figure for the fourth quarter GDP in 2015 as well as the month-on-month changes for other indicators in December 2014 are as follows: 

The quarter-on-quarter growth of GDP in 2014 and 2015 were 1.6 percent, 1.8 percent, 1.8 percent, 1.7 percent, 1.3 percent, 1.9 percent, 1.8 percent and 1.6 percent respectively.  

Month-on-Month Changes in 2015

 

Value Added of Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size

(%)

Investment in Fixed  Assets (Excluding Rural Households)

(%)

Total Retail Sales of Consumer Goods

(%)

January 

0.45

0.88 

0.80 

February

0.42

0.86 

1.08 

March

0.27

0.84 

0.83 

April

0.58

0.81 

0.85 

May

0.50

0.77 

0.87 

June

0.61

0.83 

0.97 

July

0.32

0.72 

0.80 

August

0.54

0.70 

0.91 

September

0.40

0.71 

0.88 

October

0.47

0.72 

0.82 

November

0.57

0.73 

0.85 

December

0.41

0.68 

0.82 

 

4. From 2012, the NBS implemented the new Industrial Classification for National Economic Activities (GB/T4754-2011). For more detailed information, please refer to the website of the National Bureau of Statistics of China. 

5. Industrial enterprises above the designated size are industrial enterprises with annual revenue from principal activities over 20 million yuan.

6. Units above the designated size in total retail sales of consumer goods include wholesale enterprises, retail enterprises and lodging and catering enterprises with annual revenue from principal business over 20 million yuan, 5 million yuan and 2 million yuan respectively. 

Online retail sales refer to the total retail sales of goods and services realized through internet trading platforms (including self-built websites and third-party platforms). Goods and services include physical goods and non-physical goods (e.g. virtual goods and services etc.). The total retail sales of consumer goods include the online retail sales of physical goods, but not the non-physical goods.  

7. In the fourth quarter of 2012, the National Bureau of Statistics of China conducted the reform of integrated survey of urban and rural households, unifying the names, classification and statistical standards of urban and rural households and selecting 160 thousand urban and rural households across the country to conduct direct surveys. On its basis, per capita disposable income of national residents as well as urban and rural per capita disposable income were calculated according to the new definitions which makes urban and rural households comparable. 

The median of per capita income of urban and rural households refer to the per capita income of household lied in the middle of all surveyed households which are ranked from low to high based on per capital income level. 

The income of urban and rural households by quintiles refer to the per capita income of surveyed households which are divided into five levels averagely, ranking from low to high based on per capital income level; the top 20% households with the highest income are classified as high-income group. The other four levels are upper-middle-income group, middle-income group, lower-middle-income group and low-income group.

8. Migrant workers refer to those who work in urban areas, or in the non-agriculture sectors in local or other areas for 6 months and above with their permanent household registrations being in rural areas. Local migrant workers refer to those who work in the administration area where they register their households permanently. Outside migrant workers refer to those who work in areas other than the administration area where they register their households permanently.

9. Employed persons refer to persons aged 16 and over who have the ability to work and engage in gainful employment for remuneration payment or business income. 

10. The regional data are classified by the eastern, central, western and northeastern regions. 

11. Data of imports and exports are from the General Administration of Customs; data of money supply and deposits and loans and social financing are from the People’s Bank of China.

12. Due to the rounding-off reasons, the subentries may not add up to the aggregate totals.In case of any differences between English translation and the original Chinese text, the Chinese edition shall prevail. More..

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